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Continuing to mourn the passing of Emperor Tenji.
Two poems from the time the Emperor was interred at the temporary mortuary.
如是有乃 <懐>知勢婆 大御船 泊之登萬里人 標結麻思乎 [額田王]
かからむと かねてしりせば おほみふね はてしとまりに しめゆはましを
If only I had known before
That it would be like this
I’d circumscribe the harbor
Where your royal barge had docked!
八隅知之 吾期大王乃 大御船 待可将戀 四賀乃辛埼 [舎人吉年]
やすみしし わごおほきみの おほみふね まちかこふらむ しがのからさき
Do you wait in yearning
For the royal barge
Of my well-rested lord?
— Toneri no Yoshitoshi (?)
Read on for details.
Continuing with Manyoshu banka. In the last post we looked at poem #147, and now on to #148. There’s some controversy about this poem, specifically about the headnote. It seems that it doesn’t quite fit with the poem.
The headnote reads:
According to one source, poem composed by the Empress after the Omi Emperor’s (Emp. Tenchi/Tenji) affliction turned critical.
青旗(あおはた)の 木幡(こはた)の上を 通(かよ)ふとは 目には見れども 直(ただ)に逢(あ)はぬかも
My eyes watch you come and go above green-bannered Kohata
Yet we will not meet face to face!
The controversy stems from the observation that if the Empress can see Emp. Tenji’s spirit hovering above Kohata, then to call his situation ‘critical’ is a bit of an understatement. The man is dead. However, in his study of Japanese ritual poetry, Gary Ebersole (history professor at UMKC) suggests that it might well belong here. This is because in ancient Japan death was not considered to be instant, but a rather drawn out affair, complete only when the spirit cannot be ‘coaxed’ back into the body.
Who knows. At any rate, here’s the breakdown:
見れども is izenkei of みる + ども, which is a concessive, meaning “although.”
逢(あ)はぬかも mizenkei of あふ + rentaikei of negative ず + かも, which is a Nara-period exclamation particle.
There is a kind of reoccurring image of deceased spirits hovering above the ground. So it would seem that Emp. Tenji’s spirit was on his way out.
Stay tuned for #149!
Manyoshu (万葉集) is the earliest extant Japanese poetry collection, dating to the 8th century, although the poems themselves vary chronologically from the 4th to the 7th centuries. It is divided into 20 books, but I will be focusing on a collection of banka (挽歌), or elegies, from Book 2. Poems 147- 155 are believed to have been composed during the period of Emperor Tenji’s (r. 662-671) illness and death by women who were intimate with him.
Read the rest of the post for analysis.
What follows is perhaps my favorite exchange in all of Japanese literature. But before we get to that, let’s walk a mile in Yamato-takeru’s shoes. Picture this: you are Yamato-takeru, a strong and brave warrior (pretend) who finds a fetching “bride,” lets call her Princess Miyazu. But before you manage to “marry” her, you have to go off and pacify some unruly deities and barbarians. So off you go, but promise to return and tie the nuptial knot, so to speak. You’re away for a long time, but finally make your triumphant homecoming. You hurry off to keep your promise to the nubile lady who waited for you all this time. She brings you wine, things are looking good. But there’s one problem. There’s something on her dress…
I have recently read two article pertaining the Christian experience in 16-17 c. Japan. Both are from Nanzan University’s Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 2007, 34/1. The first is Peter Nosco’s “The Experiences of Christians During the Underground Years and Thereafter” [85–97] and Tomoko Kitagawa’s “The Conversion of Hideyoshi’s Daughter Gō” [9–25]. Both of these should be accessible as PDFs in the links provided.
Read the full post for analysis.